Revenue refers to the total sum of income generated by the sale of goods or services related to the company’s primary operations.


Profit refers to the financial gain obtained when the amount of revenue gained exceeds the expenses, costs, and taxes involved in sustaining a business.


 An asset is any resource owned by a company that has economic value and can generate cash.


The company’s financial debts or obligations that occur during the course of its business operations are called liabilities.


An equity is the value of an owner’s share in a company, calculated as total assets minus total liabilities.

Market Share

A market share refers to the percentage of a market controlled or earned by a particular company or product.

ROI (Return on Investment)

A return on investment refers to a measure used to evaluate the profitability of an investment, calculated as net profit divided by the original cost of the investment.

Cash Flow

The total amount of money/cash being transferred into and out of a business at a specific point in time, is called a cash flow.

Break-even Point

A break-even point refers to the specific moment at which total revenue is the same as the total costs, resulting in neither profit nor loss.

Supply Chain

Supply chain refers to the entire network of production linking all the individuals, organisations, resources, activities, and technology involved in the creation, sale and delivery of a product or a service.

B2B (Business to Business)

B2B refers to business transactions conducted between one business and another, such as between a manufacturer and a wholesaler.

B2C (Business to Consumer)

B2C refers to the business transactions directly conducted between a company and consumers who are the end-users of its products or services.


E-commerce refers to the business model whereby the buying and selling of goods or services is done using the internet.

Brand Equity

Brand equity is the value of a brand, determined by the consumer’s perception of its quality and desirability. It is based on the level of brand loyalty, name awareness, perceived quality, strong brand associations, and other assets such as patents, trademarks, and channel relationships.


A stakeholder refers to any individual, group, or organisation that has an interest in a company and can either affect or be affected by its business. Common examples of stakeholders are employees, customers, shareholders, suppliers, communities, and governments.

KPIs (Key Performance Indicators)

 KPIs is a set of quantifiable measurements used to indicate how individuals or businesses are performing in terms of meeting their goals.

SWOT Analysis

A SWOT analysis is a strategic framework used to identify and examine a company’s Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats.

Lean Manufacturing

Lean manufacturing is a systematic method to minimise waste within a manufacturing system while at the same time maximising productivity.


Outsourcing refers to the business of using external providers to perform services or manufacture goods that were traditionally performed in-house by the company’s own employees.


 An innovation in business refers to the process of translating an idea or invention into a good, service, business model or strategy that is both novel and useful, thus creating value for which customers will pay.